army on the attack Top of Page. In the late 1800s another devastating defeat was on the horizon, the Anglo-Zulu war of 1897. Le Roux, who travelled with her missionary husband as part of the apostolic faith mission. It was at this time that the enslavement of black Africans along the eastern coast of the continent by Arabian pirates began. The Zulus had forced these two tribes across the Drakensberg Mountains into Sotho territory, which meant the start of the Mfecane for the Sotho tribes. Dingiswayos army soon went from strength to strength and was employed in an attempt to expand his territory.
In 1885 Zulu life was further disrupted by the discovery of gold near Johannesburg and the resulting numbers of young men who were recruited to go in to work in the mines (Lawson 1984:44). Shaka and his mother Nandi could not get along with some of the other members of the family and went to live with Nandis family, among the Lungeni people. Dinganes death brought with it an end to the extermination wars waged by him and his armies. The need for miners also led to an emergence of a major labour migration pattern whereupon many foreigners entered South Africa for employment (Janzen 1992:35-36).
Sikonyela and his mother Mmantatise, moshweshwe builder of the Sotho empire. The legislation contain of a group of men known as counsel or headsmen. He had to have money or clothes. Even the Portuguese were forced to accept him as paramount chief. At Vegkop, the Voortrekkers succeeded in defeating the Matebele, but they lost all their cattle.
They have been unsuccessful with both governments. This mountain stronghold was so secure that when Mzilikazi attacked it in 1831, he had to turn back without accomplishing anything. Lomhlaba Unzima, Lohmhlaba, this world is a harsh place, this world" - Zulu proverb (Roberts 2006:101 this proverb sadly encapsulates the reality of existence for the Zulu people in the last two centuries. There are others that specialize in medicine. The Zionist churches also allowed Zulu chiefs to craft new narratives of political legitimacy in an age where they had little practical ruling power (Cabrita 2010:21).
The young men were even required to remain celibate until such time when they had proven themselves worthy of the name warrior. Which indicate that the fathers lineage in the Zulu culture is very important, also all of the children belong to the father lineage ( Mpilo, 2002). Links between urban and rural residents remain strong. Many people died during the Mfecane.
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The following are selected of the important applications. This chapter first describe the paradigm of mobile ad hoc networking include its characteristics, application and routing. "Wireless ATM Ad Hoc Networks, 1997, Kluwer Academic Press". UnitRead more